Police dog


 A police dog is a dog employed in canine intervention squads. The police regularly use dogs for security, attack, tracking, or even the search for drugs. Police and gendarmerie know how to make the most of police dogs, which are directly educated and taken care of by a dog handler.

What is a police dog?

All police forces around the world use dogs in their services and France is no exception. Police dogs are used in the national police, gendarmerie, customs, municipal police and the army.

A police dog is quite simply a dog trained and employed by the police. We speak of "canine brigade" to designate units that use dogs in their ranks.

Of course, a dog does not work alone: ​​it is led by a dog handler, specially trained for dog education and supervision in the field.

To become a dog handler, an agent must generally have two years of service, undergo specific training, and pass practical tests.

Roles of police dogs

Police dogs are working dogs, trained specifically to perform a specific task.

The police use police dogs for multiple functions:

- as a defense or attack dog in the context of patrols and policy interventions;

- to detect and search for narcotics, weapons, or even explosives, in particular in customs services;

- to detect human remains or compare smells at a crime scene;

- as a rescue dog, in search of missing persons (especially after an avalanche or under the rubble).

We use a police dog to protect and rescue people as well as to detect drugs or to advance an investigation.

Career and education of a police dog

Naturally, police dogs need a perfectly conducted dog training to carry out their missions within the canine brigades.

Police dog education

Police dogs are trained in a training center for dog-dog units. In real life, they are educated through positive education methods based on play and reward.

A dog must be between 10 months and 2 years old to receive “training”. He should ideally have received basic dog training, but this is not automatic.

The education of the dog lasts about 6 months. Each dog is then assigned to a dog team.

Police dog career

The assignment of a police dog to a police dog brigade depends in particular on its character, its breed, and its qualities.

The “police dog/handler” pair is also established according to each person's character.

Each police dog is assigned a specific role (patrolling, drug detection, etc.). The careers of these working dogs end when they reach the age of 8, after which they are returned to civilian life.

Different breeds of police dogs

Police departments do not necessarily select dogs on the basis of their breed, but more on the basis of their individual qualities. Despite everything, some races are more present than others in the police force. This is the case for the following breeds:


German shepherd ;

Belgian Malinois shepherd;




It is the Belgian shepherds who represent most of the dogs of the police. On the other hand, all breeds of dogs are admitted. Small dogs are not necessarily pushed aside. If they are necessarily incompatible with a patrol or defense work, they are very appreciated by the customs services, because they more simply squeeze between piles of suitcases!