DNA test for dogs: know your dog's DNA



You have such a cute crossbreed, but it's true that you often wonder what breed he might be. It's not always easy to guess, and sometimes the mix is really surprising! What if I told you that the origins of your dog can be revealed to you with a simple DNA test? That you just need to collect some saliva to finally know which breeds your dog is made of? What if DNA testing could save your dog's life or secure your kennel? Let’s embark on the exciting adventure of your dog's DNA.

What is DNA?

DNA or Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, is what constitutes the carrier molecule of hereditary genetic information. Genetic information is thus never lost through the transmission of DNA, and can be passed on to new generations.

DNA can help you to know the parentage (transmission of parentage) of your dog, his breed but also to know his genetic health (hereditary disease). So DNA can give you a whole lot of visible and invisible information about your dog.

Know the parentage

Knowing your dog's parentage, even if you take him to the kennel is important. In fact, we will no longer count the few scrupulous breeders, making you believe in false breeders, while the puppy is not luffing, and sometimes even crossed. If that doesn't seem important to you, also know that it is your right to know who your puppy's real parents are, especially if you want to do beauty pageants with your dog.

Knowing your dog's parentage can also help you avoid setbacks. For example, I would cite the cases related to Czech or Saarloos wolf dog breeders, which through false pedigrees will make future buyers believe that they simply own a dog, when in reality there has been a re-soaking of pure wolf or wolf hybrid in lineage. You should know that in France, it is completely illegal to own a wolf hybrid (unless a certificate of capacity specific to the species). You also risk losing the money, the life of the animal, which did not ask for anything, and you then contribute to animal trafficking.

Genetic identification therefore consists in knowing precisely the genetic fingerprint of a dog without being able to falsify it. Indeed, it consists of 22 genetic markers. Genetic markers are coded and their combination will be different from dog to dog even if they are from the same family (except identical twins). The puppy's genetic fingerprint will be a mixture of that of the father and mother. Compatible prints will prove parentage between the puppies in a litter and the breeders.

Genetic disease

Having your dog screened is important for the health of future puppies. Having a DNA test is the best way to rule out certain genetic diseases that can be detected before breeding.

This makes it possible to secure your breeding, by selecting healthy breeders or carriers, therefore adapting your marriages according to the results, in order to avoid the birth of sick puppies as much as possible. Likewise, you can test a dog from outside the farm to avoid genetically contaminating your line.

As the owner, you can also request this test to check that your future puppy does not have a particular problem.

For an autosomal recessive or dominant disease, the dog has 3 genetic statuses:

- normal homozygous: he does not develop the disease and does not transmit it

- heterozygous (healthy carrier): he does not develop the disease, but transmits it to 50% of his descendants

- mutated homozygote: he develops the disease and transmits it to 100% of his descendants

To know the races

Finally, the last reason is to know what breeds your dog is made of! It can be a matter of curiosity! Mixtures of breeds sometimes give amazing dogs! But this test can also be useful to you to prevent your dog from falling into the category dog   box and that you have to take a dog license!

Testing for some may give you a percentage of race present in DNA. While others will give you levels.

Level 1: This level counts only when your dog's DNA contains more than 75% of a major breed. That is, one of the parents was pureblood.

Level 2: This level only concerns dogs whose breeds are easily recognizable. Each breed makes up less than the majority of a dog's DNA, a number between 37% and 74%. This means that one of the parents could be pureblood or both parents could be of the same breed.

Level 3: This category represents breeds that are present between 21% and 36%.

Level 4: Here the races present can only be between 10% and 20%.

Level 5: This level represents the lowest level of the breed found in your dog's DNA. This also means that its rate is less than 9% and that it is still possible to trace the genetics of a breed at this level.

How to do the test?

Nothing could be simpler than a genetic test that you can find on the internet! Here are the steps of the test once you have the DNA kit at home:

Step 1: A sample of saliva is sufficient. You do the sample yourself, because it is painless for the dog and only takes a few seconds to obtain. You send the sample in a specific envelope included in your DNA kit.

Step 2: The lab will isolate your dog's DNA from saliva. Using this DNA, the lab can search for breeds and variances included in the dog's genetics.

Step 3: After about three weeks of waiting (depending on the laboratory), you will receive at home by mail or email, the result of the DNA test. This will allow you to check which breeds are included in your dog's DNA.

        Taking a DNA test can enhance your breeding, secure a line, or even buy a so-called purebred puppy. But it also partly provides medical security, even if we cannot predict everything. Finally, out of curiosity, you can also determine what your dear doggie is made of!